I noticed this behavior before in the Xchange printer driver, but since it's more complex there I post my easier to reproduce/follow observations on extracted images here.
When PDF Tools extracts images from a PDF file it seems to hardcode the Working Space color conversion into the output image files. What this means is that when I set up a large gamut display color profile for my Dell U3014 in Windows color management settings then the output image is converted to supposedly "sRGB" by PDF Tools (decreased saturation and slight green-shift). This is not just inserted as a profile into the image file, but is hardcoded into its colors (aka colors are converted and output as different values).
Once I switch my display profile in Windows' color management to sRGB (or just delete it, which does the same) PDF Tools outputs the image file with original color values.
Extracted with wide gamut display profile in Windows' color management:
Extracted with no display profile (=sRGB) in Windows' color management: