Hi Patrick, and thank you for your answer,
in the meantime I found that by playing around with the resolution settings (increase), graphics settings (do not compress) and font settings (embed) in the PDF-XChange Standard print driver, I could achieve at least similar results as with the Adobe print driver.
However, now the resulting file from the PDF-XChange Standard print driver is 40 times (!) as large as the file from the Adobe print driver.
One possible reason for this can be taken from the below screenshots, showing a clipping of the respective PDF from Adobe (top) and PDF-XChange (bottom), respectively, as opened in a drawing program. It can be seen that Adobe mostly draws curves as Bezier lines, while the PDF-XChange print driver breaks those curves up in lots of segments.
PDF result from Adobe printer:
PDF result from PDF-XChange printer:
I hope that this and the attached files helps to track this problem down!